Sunday, May 24, 2020
A crisis in participation can be defined as a serious situation in which there has been a drop in, or lack of citizens engaging in political activities designed to influence government decision making. In this essay, I will demonstrate how there is a contemporary crisis in participation in traditional forms of political participation. This is however more significant amongst young and unskilled groups. I will show how there is an increase in participation in more informal methods of participation as social norms evolve, and how this reduces the extent to which there is a crisis. There is a trend of falling electoral turnout in a variety of established democracies. The percentage turnout at UK General Elections as a proportion of the electorate has declined from 72.8% in 1945 to 66.1% in 2015. (UK Political Info) In April 2011, parliamentary registers were 82.3% complete, compared to 1950s and 60s registers which were found to be 96% complete. (Electoral Commission, 2011) This highlights an even more significant crisis in participation as the register is shrinking along with the percentage of the register which is voting. The decline in EU average turnout in European Parliamentary elections from 61.99% in 1979 to 42.61% in 2014 (UK Political Info) shows how there is a serious crisis in participation as this is at such a low level, the European Parliament cannot be sufficiently held to account. This also emphasises the widespread nature of the crisis across many EuropeanShow MoreRelatedThe Issues Of Time And Speed918 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIssues of time and sp eed are central to UngerÃ¢â¬â¢s proposed re-organization of political institutions in Democracy Realized. In basic terms, Unger wants to accelerate politics so that lawmaking can keep up with the now rapid speed of economic and cultural life. For Unger, slow political time, in the form of traditional constitutional governance, is a conservative impediment to progress and a recipe for low political participation. Progressivism requires institutional innovation to become more responsiveRead MoreEssay The Political Ethos of the Civil Society2758 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThe Political Ethos of the Civil Society ABSTRACT: Totalitarian political systems in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe destroyed and repressed the civil society that used to exist in them. The authoritarian and totalitarian ethos was formed under a powerful influence of ideologies of the communist parties and politocracy in these countries so that the political ethos of politicians dominated the political ethos of the citizen. The breakdown of the real socialism and its unsuccessfulRead MoreBackground On The Arab Spring And The Control Of Mainstream Media1968 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthat have characterised its history in the past century. One of these changes have been rapid economic development where many of these countries have discovered mineral deposits, especially oil, making them some of the major distributors of this rare form of energy (Moussa 56). The economic development of these countries was slowed down by their immature democracies that allowed totalitarian regimes to rise into power and abuse this power to amass wealth. Most of the regimes that have existed in manyRead MoreStrengths and Weaknesses of the Social Capital Approach2471 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesD. Putnam has argued that non-political organizations in civil society are vital for democracy. They result in building social capital, trust and shared values, which politically, help hold society together. PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s civil society is the idea that positive outcomes in government are a product of civic community, for example, networks of trust such as, soccer club or choral society (Putnam). However, social capital may also lead to negative outcomes if the political institution and democracy in aRead MoreHuman Resource Essay example3782 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesthe 1990s, and it has been flourishing explosively in the dozen years since the turn of the millennium (the 2000s so far). We will try to understand the conditions of possibility for the rise of HRM in terms of cultural background, economic and political conditions, and social transformations in North Atlantic societies at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st. HRMÃ¢â¬â¢s evolution over time shows that it has become intensified, that it has expanded its sphere both within work organisationsRead MoreEssay on The Shaping of the U.S. Constitution2037 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesrevised, amended, and ratified in order to solidify the allocation of power between the separate branches of government. Although this may be the case, distribution of the powers has been disputed ever since the formation of the Constitution. These political, legal, and quasi-legal constitutional disputes triggered civil unrest and led to explicit acts of opposition involving nullification and sovereignty resolutions. Specified in the constitution and pertaining to the concept of federalism, governingRead MoreState Mass Killings in Indonesia 1965 to 1966 Essay3128 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesState Mass Killings in Indonesia 1965 to 1966 In order to develop a general framework with which to understand collective political violence, I examine state mass killings in Indonesia 1965-66. While acknowledging the importance of historical/cultural factors, I identify elements within the sociopolitical sphere that influence actors of collective political violence at national, local, and event- specific levels. Elements discussed are elite interests, justification for violence, formal organizationsRead MoreCountdown1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages 1. Strong Marketing and advertising teams. Countdown has excellent marketing plans that promote their products in various forms. For example discounts, TV promotions, door to door leafleting, in-store promotional activities (e.g. spending X dollars in exchange for household products), free gifts etc. Their promotional activities are very innovative compared to traditional discounting product price. These activities are running on a regular mores. Its marketing keeps it in a very competit ive positionRead MoreRelationship Between New Media And Intercultural Communication1867 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesconsiderably dissimilar to traditional media. Mankind has always had an immense fascination with the ideological new when it came to new media and technology, the impact new media has on our society is in the constant state of flux of being absorbed by a generation, rejected or regurgitated and upgraded . In this new-media culture, people no longer passively consume media but rather actively participate in them, which usually means creating content, in whatever form and on whatever scale. DespiteRead MoreMulticulturalism Is A Significant Issue For The Modern World2072 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesuniqueness. Moreover, many different cultures were able to create their own special cultural spaces in contemporary Britain. However, the ambiguity of the results of evaluation of multiculturalism, coupled with the erosion of the notion of British identity gave a rise to discussions about the effectiveness of government policies against migrants. Furthermore, the issue was raised about the crisis of multiculturalism and the revision of multic ulturalism policy. However, in the second half of the twentieth
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The American dream is one of freedom and equality. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s supposed to be branded in the hearts of every United States citizen however, when it comes to homosexuals, citizens of the United States wake up and the dream is demolished. Gay sex marriage is the most conflicting issue in the contemporary social world. Marriage is an association of persons through which we perceive the reflection of a particular culture. It is basically a private matter and a fundamental human right. People should have the right to decide with whom they marry, not the state. If two persons are closed to each other regardless of their gender, they should be allowed to marry with each other (Eric). Legalizing gay marriage is granting same-sex couples the right to marry and would promote the separation of church and state, increase successful marriage rates and adoptions, decrease suicide, and ensure all American citizens have equal rights and opportunities. Gay marriages are currently illegal in the Unite s States except in a few states. The prohibition of gay marriages is wrong because it is a prominent form of discrimination. Not only are homosexuals denied of their civil rights, they are also denied of economic and legal benefits. No government should be able to legally prohibit someone from showing their love for another person; it simply does not uphold the basic principles of the constitution (Clounds). The constitution states there is a separation of church and state. Religious beliefs shouldn tShow MoreRelatedShould Gay Marriage Be Legal Defense And Education Fund Supports Same Sex Marriage?1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesone of which is legalizing same-sex marriage. In their article, Ã¢â¬Å"Talking About the Freedom to Marry: Why Same-Sex Couples Should Have Equality in Marriage,Ã¢â¬ the Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund supports same-sex marriage. An opposing view, is given by Robert P. George, a Princeton University professor. In his article, Ã¢â¬Å"The 28th Amendment: It Is Time to Protect Marriage, and Democracy, in America,Ã¢â¬ he explains why he is against same-sex marriage. The Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund concludesRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Banned874 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgrounds that gay rights or same sex marriage should be banned or that itÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong under their religions. With that there are many factors that contradict against gay rights, such as religion, child adoption, and divorce just to name a few. Roger Severino, a graduate from Harvard Law School, and has a master in public policy claims the negative collusions that are against gay rights (924). Severino tells us that gay marriage conflicts with religious beliefs because it ruins the traditional marriage betweenRead MoreShould Gay Marriage Be Legal? Essay911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould gay marriage be legal? Gay marriage should be legal because as woman and man, all individuals have the same right in society; because same-sex couples can constitute a good based family; because it is just a way to make official a common union nowadays, even with the religious issue; because it is not related to polygamy; and because love matters and it does not differ in nature according to the sex of its object or the person who experiences it. The first reason why same sex marriageRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legal1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Marriage is not precisely the same as it used to be interpreted. For example, women used to be their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s property. Sometimes the women were forced to marry whoever their parents wanted them to marry and most of the time they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t leave the marriage. Nowadays women have more freedom. They can vote, they can run their own business, and they can marry whichever man they want to. The laws change as the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind change. As they get more comfortable with the idea, they become more openRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Is The Legal Union Essay1562 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaccess FREE course materials and tests. Products Ã¯â¡ ³Home Ã¯â¡ ¶Research Ã¯â¡ µDrive Ã¯â¡ ´Answers About Company Legal Site Map Contact Advertise Ã¯â¡ º Ã¯â¡ ¼ Ã¯â¡ ½ Ã ©2015 StudyMode.com Home Same-sex marriage Same Sex Marriage Same Sex Marriage Civil union, Homosexuality, Marriage By kwhite89 Mar 16, 2015 1510 Words 56 Views More info Ã¯ââ PDF View Text View PageRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHoward Sociology 1301-93431 Gay Marriage Getting married is something that most people do when they find love, which it is an important event in their life. The GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender) community now get the legal right of same-sex marriage, which they have fought for throughout the years; on the other hand, some opponents of same-sex marriage have called for a constitutional change towards it. Although there were some countries that allowed gay marriage before the United StatesRead MoreShould Gay Marriage Be Legal?778 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesShould Gay Marriage Be Legal? Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I now pronounce you husband and wifeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ One would normally hear this when attending a wedding. In tradition marriage has been between one male and one female who love each other. But how would one feel if they heard Ã¢â¬Å"I now pronounce you groom and groomÃ¢â¬ or how about Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦bride and bride...Ã¢â¬ ? In the last 50 years the number of same-sex couples has increased. The on-going argument between the government and the people is Ã¢â¬Å"Should gay marriage be legal?Ã¢â¬ Although some sayRead MoreEssay about Lets Legalize Gay Marriage872 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLetÃ¢â¬â¢s Legalize Gay Marriage Gay marriage is a right. Heterosexual couples are allowed to enjoy all the marriage benefits, so why shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t same-sex couples be able to? Why should other people be able to choose who marries who? If a man and a woman get married, no one seems to care. Gay marriage should be legal because itÃ¢â¬â¢s an issue of equal rights, it would save society money, and it will increase the chances for foster children to be adopted into loving families. Same-sex marriage is an issueRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal in All States1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeen Gay Marriage. Whether same-sex couples should be given the right to marry or even if same-sex couples should be given rights at all, this has been a contentious discussion which creates division and disunity throughout the country. The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage. Gay marriage has been legalized in 17 states. But only 19 of 194 countries allow for gay marriage. Statistics show more than half the country supports Gay MarriageRead MoreCommon Ground : Same Sex Marriage956 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommon Ground: Same-Sex Marriage Same-sex marriage, a controversial social issue in the U.S. for several decades, is constantly evolving. When viewed historically, great change has happened in a short period of time, in the movement for same-sex marriage, given that until recently, no society in thousands of years has ever allowed it. Futurist John Naisbitt, author of Megatrends, has studied the change in the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective on gay marriage. Naisbitt asserts: Ã¢â¬Å"In just my lifetime, we
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The purpose of this paper is to recognize, study and analyze the race relations in Brazil. Race relations are relations between two groups of different races; it is how these two different races connect to each other in their environment. Since Brazil is racially diverse, this study is focused on how Brazilians relate to each other. Throughout the essay, it will become clear that there exists a conflict between two race groups. Afro-Brazilians and White-Brazilians are not connected and though these two groups converse with each other, discrimination still lies within the society. This discrimination has created inequality within the society for Afro-Brazilians. Thus, this paper will not only focus on racism and discrimination thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Thus, Brazil was the last country to abolish slavery. African Americans endured a great deal of hardships because of the Portuguese settlers. In order to increase the population in Brazil, the Portuguese sexually abused African Americans and mixed race women. Telles explains, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦mixed-race Brazilians were largely spawned through sexual violence throughout the period of slavery, although cohabitation and marriage between whites and non-whites was not uncommonÃ¢â¬ (Telles 2004: 25). Although, some women in Brazil agreed to marriage with Portuguese men, the majority did not approve of the idea. Whether the non-white women agreed or disagreed they still had the children of the Europeans. Through the misery, Brazil gained their independence. After the Portuguese migrated out of Brazil to Europe, Brazil began to develop their own country. In hopes of gaining their freedom after the Portuguese migrated from Brazil, they did not receive equality, but discrimination and racism within the society. The majority of the population in Brazil is predominantly Pretos and Pardos; there are very few Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ Brazilians in Brazil. Pretos are people who a very dark skinned, Ã¢â¬Å"blackÃ¢â¬ . Pardos are considered as people who are a little bit lighter, Ã¢â¬Å"brownÃ¢â¬ . Though there are few Ã¢â¬Å"whitesÃ¢â¬ in Brazil, Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ Brazilians still feel they are superior and still have a control over Brazil.Show MoreRelatedBrazil Race Relations1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBrazil Race Relation Brazil is one of the most visited place in the world and also one of the most diverse countries in the world. More than 75millon people of African decent live in Brazil, this makes it the second largest black population in the world. Its attracts a large number of people because of it architecture, slums and rainforest. Brazil is contradictory because its was the last country to abolish slavery but also the first to claim that it was a racial democracy. Most people mightRead MoreA Study Of Latin American History1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof Latin American history or subjects like race to show that Much of Latin American historical studies are comparative. Many of the Latin American countries have their own history but share similar cultural conductions concerning race. The history of race relations in Latin America has become a central theme in a fair amount of scholarly activities. This in turn has made the historiography of Latin America to become much more relevant when looking at race around the world. One of the more popularRead MoreIn The Year Of 1863, Two New York Democrats With The Intention1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand Ã¢â¬Å"NegroÃ¢â¬ . The article was entitled Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro. During this time, the American Civil War was in action and two years later slavery in the United Sates was abolished. Da Cruz Brito said that, Ã¢â¬Å" It was during and after the Civil War that sexual-affective relations between blacks and whites came to be less tolerated...Ã¢â¬ Race mixing became difficult because, it was crucial for blacks and whites to support theirRead MoreThe Brewton Berrys Model Of Assimilation984 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAssimilation patterns differ in societies that are characterized by paternalistic race relations than in societies characterized by competitive race relations. According to the lectures and readings, assimilation is defined as a process by which mi nority and majority groups are merged into some total societal unit. There are also three different type of assimilation which are Anglo (or dominant group) conformity, the Melting Pot, and cultural pluralism. Some additional concepts that go along withRead MoreThe Status Of The United States1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesargue that race in the U.S. is understood as an ascribed status because a person is assigned a race at birth -- you cannot choose or earn your race. Additionally, race in the United States is unchangeable. This is even true for when a person goes to different countries. For example, even though a person might be considered white in one country, if he or she is considered black in America, to America, they will always be black. Furthermore, Rodriguez and Guzman wrote that the way race is understoodRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Mixed Blood By Jeffrey Fish907 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexample, in the U.S individuals are classified into different races based on their heri tage. However in Brazil, people are classified into a series of Ã¢â¬Å"tipos based on their physical appearance.Ã In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Mixed BloodÃ¢â¬ , Jeffrey Fish supports the claim that race is nothing more, but a social construct by demonstrating the cultural basis of race by comparing how races are defined in the United States and Brazil. Anthropologists argue that race does not exist because it is not a biological entity. TheRead MoreBrazil s Demographic Distribution Of Brazil1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRunning head: BRAZIL 2 Demographic Distribution Brazil is the chief nation in South America with a population of 201,032,714, sustaining a growth rate of 0.9% and a population density of 24 per square km. According to the Central Intelligence Agency [CIA], 2014, Ã¢â¬Å"As the largest country it share borders with the Atlantic Ocean and every South American countryRead MoreThe Violence Of Black Americans Essay1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWho are we? What defines us? In America, we are defined by our class, what we do and most importantly Ã¢â¬â how we look. Since the birth of our nation, a notion of Ã¢â¬Å"raceÃ¢â¬ has been rooted to our core personas. In fact it can enforce stereotypes of class and careers. It is evident that Black Americans are un-proportionally living in poverty and without easy access to achievement. This harsh reality is not helped by our media-driven society. In a world so heavily integrated with mass media hysteria, weRead MoreTeaching A Bilingual Classroom At The Relay Graduate School Of Education755 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs a current 5th grade teacher through Teach for America and MastersÃ¢â¬â¢ candidate at the Relay Graduate School of Education, I believe I would be an excellent fit for the English Teaching Assistantship in Brazil. Raised myself in a bilingual household, my experience teaching English as a Second Language students in Passaic, New Jersey has strengthened my language skills. Teaching in a bilingual classroom (English and Spanish), I teach a range of students: some only speak their native language whileRead MorePast Influences that Marked Brazils Contemporary Society1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheir political power as a united front, instead, the neoliberal belief of market power replacing citizenship power stratified the population based on capital. What all people of Brazil have in common is their citizenship and under the constitution, each citizen is entitled to equal access in the political realm. Brazil attempts to achieve this by requiring everyone to cast an opinion in the form of a vote. Ã¢â¬Å"Citizenship has provided common ground and an articulatory principle for an immense diversity
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Foundations of Global Corporate Success. Answer: Introduction Due to increasing rate of globalization and technological advancements, commercial activities like foreign direct investments (FDI), emergence of multinational companies (MNC), and joint international ventures (JIV) as well as strategic alliances have been moving on upward trajectory. Globalization has improved interaction and foreign trade across many countries. However, a number of factors have slowed down foreign business activities. These factors are broadly compartmentalized into two: formal and informal systems. Formal systems include factors like political systems, economic systems, and legal systems and informal system, while informal system encompass cultural, social, and linguistic aspects. This paper analyses the risks, costs, and uncertainties that these factors impose towards undertaking foreign business activities. There has been increasing academic concern on the relationship between international business and political environment. One of the most fundamental issues in this context is the type of the political risks that may hamper foreign investment. In most instances, when political risk depicts government interference with market operations. According to Ghosh (2015), political risk emanates from the governments action to prevent or interfere with the business transactions by either changing the terms of agreement or confiscating partially of or the foreign owned business assets. Farnell and Crookes (2016) define political risk as government or sovereign interference with the business operations. Some scholars equate political backlash with the environmental aspects like direct violence, instability, and competition (Cavusgil et al., 2017). Ghosh (2015) identifies the dynamic feature of political environment but contends that progressive and gradual changes that are unexpected do not defin e the political risk. However, political uncertainties affect the business in terms of transfer technology, people, payments, and capital uncertainties; operational business regulation uncertainties; and control uncertainties concerning policies that relates to the management control (Kaur and Sandhu, 2013). Operational and transfer uncertainties flow from the political-economic events to ownership-control events. Political Instability According to Ma et al (2013), political activities have great influence on the economic activities of a country, and as such, a shift in regime may dramatically transform the economy socialism to capitalism. Similarly, power concerns affect the economic policies that a country adopts. For a regime that has been installed through coup may adopt radical socialism that strip all foreign-owned companies their assets. Political expropriations may also be in form of inclusion of forceful renegotiation of contracts with public enterprises, violating the agreement on tax benefits, revisiting business regulatory rules to the detriment of the private investors, and nationalization of private assets without redress (Immarino and McCain, 2013). Uncertainty about the regime change may affect the value of the business expected returns and influence their variations. Political systems have great influence the investment strategy. Countries that experience consistent political instabilities are prone to political violence and have quintessentially weak institutions. In such scenarios, the investment decisions are underpinned on the risk of asset destruction, sporadic changes in the domestic demand, and the poor infrastructure. In addition, countries that undergo political conflicts tend to have slow economic growth and low income per capita. Political instability may also result to destruction of properties and looting. In most times, political unrest culminates to the state of anarchy, which is another factor inhibits foreign investment. Political instability is the reason why most developed and emerging economies do not want to invest in countries like Somalia, Syria, and Pakistan. This is because there is more risk involved in such countries compared to the politically stable countries like China (Wild and Wild, 2018). Conflicts between host countries and other countries Like the internal conflicts, border disputes can result to a reduction in capital inflow and capital outflow, thereby blighting FDI. Conducting a business along tumultuous zones may expose the firm to high risks of asset destruction and staff insecurity. Conflict among the countries materially reduces the demand for business products (Wild and Wild, 2018). For instance, the border conflict between Russia and Ukraine over Crimea has plummeted FDI in Ukraine from $4.5 billion in 2013 to $410 million in 2014 (Vox Ukraine, 2017) There are four distinct types of the economic systems: traditional economy, market economy, command economy, and the mixed economy (Immarino and McCann, 2013). A command economy is an economic system where coordination of economic activities operates under direct control, directive, and regulations of the administrative systems. The economic activities are considered significant to the complex social systems that they cannot be left to operate under the context of the free market. Under this economic system, the economic agents, especially in the production organizations, take orders from high ranks within the authority in the political hierarchy. Therefore, the authorities directly undertake the firm activities, resource employment, production output, management of disturbances, and their coordination. Essentially, the central government sets the firm production targets. Some of the activities that government regulation encompasses include price levels, budgetary control and allocation, material balance, and technical coefficients. According to White and White (2016), this kind of command authority may collide with market forces in crucial sectors of the economy hence manipulating the political direction. Some of the countries whose economies are inherently command system include Russia, China, and North Korea. On the other hand, traditional economy is the type of economy in which customs, traditions and believes prescribe the principles of economic organization for production of goods and services is built up around traditions, according to which a particular society lives (Ghosh, 2015). Technology and other innovations are discouraged to enable the traditional systems that have been embedded on the economic systems over the years to remain. Most countries that adopt this system of the economy are usually agricultural-dependent and rural-based. The economy is quintessentially subsistence characterized by barter trade. Economic activities are rarely commercial, and is dominated by activities like hunting and gathering, cultivations, small-scale fishing, without any modern form of technology. Verbeke (2013) attests the amount surplus produced under the traditional economy is very little. The traditional system of economy is popular in the developing countries and the emerging markets, particularly among the aboriginal population. Another feature of such economy is that the families train their children concerning the traditional customs about resource allocation in the community. Underdeveloped parts of Africa, Asia, and South America still apply this system of the economy. One of the merit of this kind of economy is that it encourages inclusivity. Every person has a specified role to undertake in the growth of the economy, hence strengthening social bonds. Another benefit is that the n basic needs are met. The kind of life in this system appreciates basic items instead of the luxury lifestyle. However, this type of the economy is rigid to change and inhibits high standards of living. Market economy refers to the type of economic system where forces of market demand and supply inherently controls the economic activities (Verbeke, 2013). This means that there is no government intervention or regulation. The state only offers security to buyers and sellers by protecting their individual lives and property against criminals. An absolute free market economy involves full ownership of the resources by individuals. Similarly, individuals without government involvement undertake the decisions of the market. Ideally, producer produces the amount the like and sets prices for their products. Owners of factors of production also have the discretion on what to pay the employees. However, such decisions are implicitly under the market demand and supply forces, which is inbuilt. The market forces determine how much the producer will produce and for how much the producer will sell. The economic decisions in the market economy vest on the buyers and the sellers. The market econom y promotes competition, which enhances efficient use of the economic resources (Beugelsdijk and Mudambi, 2013). In the mixed economic system, the government undertakes part of planning and production activities while private enterprises control some of the production activities (Beugelsdijk and Mudambi, 2013). Most importantly, the public systems operate in a coordinated fashion to ensure that there is partly free and partly centralized. Usually, the government undertakes the investment activities that involves huge capital outlay and are unattractive to the private investors due to the low profit margin and high degree of the risks are involved. Examples of such investments include electricity, provision of water and health services. Mixed economy has both characteristics of command and market economy. The economy is compartmentalized into four sectors: private sector, which owns and controls resources; the public sector, which engages in production of essential goods and services. Joint sector is where the private sectors collaborate with the public sector to undertake economic activities and in the cooperative sector, small-scale producers collaborate in production activities to achieve the economies of scale (Beugelsdijk and Mudambi, 2013). Another fundamental feature of the mixed economy is the maximum social wellbeing. The mixed economy system has regulations to ensure that the private sectors engage in the production activities in a sustainable manner. Therefore, the government can impose quotas, tariffs, and labour laws to promote sustainability and social welfare. The government also ensure that there is equal distribution of wealth through taxation and investment models. Similarly, while the market forces of demand and supply determines the prices, they are also under gove rnment control. The government may establish price ceiling, fix price, or impose value added tax to control the consumption of certain products. The economic system that mostly favours doing business is the mixed economy (Wild and Wild, 2018). The traditional system may be detrimental to foreign investment since the inhabitants are rigid to change. On the other hand, the command system encourages state regulation, which may stifle completion and eventually affect the growth and the profitability of the business. The free market economy encourages competition, specialization, but it is prone to civil unrest and market failure, which may hamper business operations. Due uncertainties that characterize command economy, countries like Russia have experienced decline in inward FDI (Wild and Wild, 2018). However, socialist economies are marked political instability due to one-party state factor. For instance, the FDI in Vietnam registered a 96% increase in the number of FDI projects, from $5075 billion in 2015 to $18103 billion in 2016 (Hanh et al., 2017). The economic system has been favourable hence attracting MNC like Toyota, Uni lever, and Canon. Legal Systems Legal systems can affect the foreign investment by influencing the investors perception on the returns and the risks involved in an investment. Laws that are designed to raise investment cost my may discourage the foreign investors and make the remaining part to raise their demands on the return investment. The main transaction cost to foreign investment, according to Cantwell (2014), is the uncertainty risk about the commercial and legal structures, as well as the risks of breaching intellectual property laws. However, Yu et al (2013) argue that there is no need of stronger intellectual property laws when the business is operating in countries that do have the capacity to invest in technology and contravene the intangible asset laws. Other legal risks include labour laws and taxation policies. Peng and Meyer (2016) observe that absence of international legislative framework that can address such policy issues may impose a huge risk to the foreign business. Without adequate intergove rnmental operations to establish mechanisms and principles that guide business operations between the two countries, investors may be exposed to legal risks and uncertainties. To reduce such risks, it is imperative that the countries implant international legal systems to promote familiarity with the foreign countrys legal system. Another legal risk that international businesses may face is difficulty in optimum connections to address unique challenges that the international business operation presents. Farnell and Crookes (2016) observe that foreign investors may be exposed to demarcation problems when in matters of defining obligations and rights. One of the main difference between the international and domestic transactions is the existence of broader range of parties in legal relationships. Demarcation problems may spawn overlapping problems and other disputing issues. More often, contractual relationships applies to international transactions, for instance buyer and seller contract, carriage contract, insurance contract, buyer and bank contract, as well as bank and the buyer contract. Such system of transaction explicitly discourages international business firms. In addition, money transfer across different countries usually involves legal process that blends local laws with the international arrangements. Specialized contract policies define the obligations and rights of the payee, payer, and banks facilitating the transactions. Some of the regulatory concerns that emerge are general fraud, fund misappropriation, security systems, and confidentiality issues (Cantwell, 2014). The nature of the transaction also demands that the legal systems ride in the same pace with finance and trade institutions. Some of the aforementioned issues replicate in foreign direct investment system. Some of the legal systems give the state full control over the production firms hence making foreign investment difficult, particularly in countries that embrace customary international laws. in similar vein, countries that operates under command economy stipulates that the government will control the foreign businesses, which may clash with the local host laws (Ghosh, 2015). Some countries may also impose restriction requirements to protect the local enterprises. Some of such restrictions include like performance requirements, which stipulates the specifications that a company must meet to join a particular sector of production; licencing requirements, majorly administrative verification; operational requirements, and joint venture requirements, which insists on inclusion of local capital in the foreign production process (.Ghosh, 2015) Cultural Differences Culture refers to a set of shared values, assumptions and beliefs that are learnt through membership in a group, and that influence the attitudes and behaviours of group members (Vadi, 2011) Multinational companies or businesses that engage in the direct foreign investment must observe foreign differences to succeed in a foreign environment. Failure to observe cultural differences can be detrimental to business in terms of strained relationships, poor performance, and reputation vitiation. According to White (2016), it is imperative for businesses that want to invest in foreign countries to understand how culture materializes as well as how cultural differences influence commercial activities globally. Ideally, culture is multifaceted phenomenon and exits at different categories like occupational groups, business units, organizations, industries, and geographical units. Therefore, a firm must consider all these factors before it embarks on the foreign investment. Beugelsdijk and Mudambi (2013) observe that national cultural diversity has remain consistent over time. In another nuanced study, Ghosh (2015) asserts that there is existential resilience of cultural standards even after occurrences like immigration, globalization, technological advancements, formal education, and cross-cultural activities like games. Most Cultures like United States, Canada, and Australia vests on universal commitments, for example upholding integrity, while most cultures in the Russia, China, and North Korea emphasizes on loyalty to relationships and people. The resilience of culture values across different countries is significant to MNC that face numerous national cultures in their operations. This means that operation across the borders presents substantial complexities since it compels the multinational companies to redesign their ethics and standards in accordance with the cultural milieu that they operate. To be effective in its operation, the business must incur knowledge cost on the locals behaviour and understand their cultural mechanisms. To mitigate cultural uncertainties, MNC like KFC, Coca-Cola, and Unilever have been employing employees from the host countries (Ghosh, 2015) In social norms, the individualism and collectivism is the main hurdle for the MNC. Individualism social system puts more weight on the personal preference rather than the whole community or a group. Most countries that embrace individualism like the one the United States and United Kingdom have quintessentially lose structures that emphasize on the individual rights, independence, and personal achievements and initiatives. On the other hand, collectivism social systems, like in China and North Korea, distinctions are based on the community or group fashion, and community interest comes first at the expense of individuals interest (Beugelsdijk and Mudambi, 2013). Like in the case of cultural differences, the MNC must incur knowledge cost and uncertainty risk to operate in in a socially different setup. Asian countries like China, Singapore, Korea, and Taiwan accounts for 70% of FDI in Taiwan because their social systems are almost similar (Hanh et al., 2017) Language Barrier Linguistic distance is also one of the major uncertainty risk that MNC are likely to face. For instance, when investing in Venezuela, business executives must ensure that the staffs are multicultural competent (Yu et al., 2013). This may require additional training, which is costly. In addition, due to language barriers, the business must incur knowledge cost, information asymmetry, and moral hazard cost. For business to be effectual in its operation, it must liaise with national commercial and international agencies within that country. The business must also work closely with the local inhabitants since they understand the environment better. To invest in East Africa, MNC like Unilever and Coca-Cola have to ensure that their employees are well conversant with English and Swahili languages (Ghosh, 2015) Conclusion Based on the aforementioned and discussed formal and informal systems, it is evident that undertaking a foreign business presents multidimensional kind of risks. Therefore, businesses that seek to invest into international markets should consider political systems, economic systems, legal systems, as well as sociocultural and language aspects before designing a strategic plan. References Beugelsdijk,S., Mudambi,R. (2013). MNEs as Border-Crossing Multi-location Enterprises: The role of Discontinuities in Geographic Space. Journal of International Business Studies, 44(5), 413-426. doi:10.1057/jibs.2013.23 Cantwell,J. (2014). Location of International Business Activities: Integrating Ideas from Research in International Business, Strategic Management and Economic Geography. (Location of international business activities.) Basingstoke [u.a.: Palgrave Macmillan. Cavusgil,S.T., Knight,G.A., Riesenberger,J.R. (2017). International business: The New Realities. Pearson Prentice Hall. Farnell,J., Crookes,P.I. (2016). A New Economic Relationship in a Changing World. The Politics of EU-China Economic Relations, 3-15. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-48874-9_1 Ghosh,A. (2015). Dynamic Systems for Everyone: Understanding How Our World Works. (Dynamic systems for everyone.) Cham: Springer. Hanh,N.P., Van Hng,?., Hoat,N.T., Trang,D.T. (2017). Improving Quality of Foreign Direct Investment Attraction in Vietnam. International Journal of Quality Innovation, 3(1). doi:10.1186/s40887-017-0016-7 Henisz,W.J., Mansfield,E.D., Von Glinow,M.A. (2010). Conflict, Security, and Political Risk: International Business in Challenging Times. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(5), 759-764. doi:10.1057/jibs.2010.11 Iammarino,S., McCann,P. (2013). Multinationals and Economic Geography: Location, technology and Innovation. Kaur,S., Sandhu,M.S. (2013). Internationalisation of Born global firms: Evidence from Malaysia. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 19(1), 101-136. doi:10.1080/13547860.2013.818426 Ma,X., Delios,A., Lau,C. (2013). Beijing or Shanghai? The Strategic Location Choice of Large MNEs Host-country Headquarters in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 44(9), 953-961. doi:10.1057/jibs.2013.49 Peng,M., Meyer,K. (2016). International Business EMEA. London: South Western: Cengage Learning. Vadi,V. (2011). When cultures collide:Cultural Heritage and Foreign Direct Investment. Cultural Heritage in International Investment Law and Arbitration, 87-92. doi:10.1017/cbo9781139828598.016 Verbeke,A. (2013). International Business Strategy: Rethinking the Foundations of Global Corporate Success. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vox Ukraine. (2017, February 7). Foreign Direct Investment in Ukraine: War and Peace. Retrieved from https://voxukraine.org/en/investments-in-ukraine-en/ White,R. (2016). Cultural Differences and Economic Globalization: Effects on trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and Migration. Abingdon: Oxon ; New York, NY. Wild,J.J., Wild,K.L. (2018). International business: The Challenges of Globalization. Yu,T., Subramaniam,M., Cannella Jr,A.A. (2013). Competing Globally, Allying Locally: Alliances between Global rivals and Host-country Factors. Journal of International Business Studies, 44(2), 117-137. doi:10.1057/jibs.2012.37
Monday, April 6, 2020
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Spies by Micheal Frayn Essays Spies by Micheal Frayn Essay Spies by Micheal Frayn Essay The first paragraph of Michael Frayns Spies includes techniques that encourage the reader to feel the intense senses that the narrator is feeling. Frayn tries to set the mood by making the reader feel involved, using vivid smells, sights and sounds that relate them to the narrators world. The descriptions that Frayn has the narrator use are deliberately trying to bring the reader closer to him. The sensual description of the aroma that reminds him of his childhood is also to relate to the reader by describing something that reminds them of a particular event, object or time. Frayns use of poetic language in some of the descriptions also is successful in making the reader connect with the narrator; to intrigue them. The use of a specific time, the third week in June, and there it is again is to bring a sense of realism to the text, which also acts as a basis in which the reader can craft a picture of what the narrator is so mysteriously but vividly describing. The abrupt sentence and there it is again also make the reader feel more involved as it seems that the narrator is talking directly to them. Frayn makes it clear that the undiscovered aroma is of great importance in connecting the narrators adulthood with his childhood and for a moment Im a child again this is clear to the reader that its likely that the body of the text will be based around this particular aroma that brings back all of the frightening half-understood things about his childhood. The descriptions of the narrators street is to encourage the reader to experience the things the narrator is seeing, smelling and feeling, the warm evening air and well ordered gardens, both of which give a description of something that can be related to. This gives the reader the opportunity to feel involved with the scene and the sense that the narrator is experiencing. This is an effective technique used by Frayn as he is inviting the reader to imagine a nice quiet peaceful scene in mid summer, he uses this to give the reader a physical place to build from. He also gives the indication that something is not right everythings before me- all the half-understood promise of life. It indicated the feeling that some events that have passed have not been understood or defined. The narrator portrays his sense of unease in the second paragraph by telling the reader that the aroma must come from one of the gardens. Which one? I can never trace it. this fragmented sentence gives the reader the feeling that the narrator is directly talking to them, asking them in the hope of some clarity, to have the reader feel the same confusion and unease that he is experiencing. He segregates the aroma from other smells around him that are common in his area its not like the heartbreaking, tender sweetness of the lime blossom, for which this citys known. This tells the reader that this particular smell is out of place amongst the familiar smells. The reader is then offered the question I feel what? A restlessness. The narrator is encouraging the reader to realise that this will be the basis of the journey of re-discovery. Frayn uses ellipses to depict that the narrator is struggling to verbalise the answers to which he seeks. This again gives realism to the text, creating once more a feeling of involvement for the reader as the narrator appears to be talking directly with them. The narrator goes on to mention that he is longing to be over the woods at the end of the street and away, away, then in contradiction a kind of homesickness for where I am. This highlights his mental state by emphasizing that he doesnt know what he wants or needs to do. This increases the readers confusion which in turn entices them to continue reading to find out what all of the unease and confusion is based upon. Frayn concludes the second paragraph with a suspenseful statement that is to become one of the many cliffhangers that Frayn employs throughout the novel. I have a feeling that something, somewhere, has been left unresolved, that some secret thing in the air around me is still waiting to be discovered. This informs the reader that the narrator is about to embark on a journey of self-fulfilment and discovery. In conclusion the theme, language and context in which Frayn uses these two paragraphs are very effective in giving the reader a sense of belonging within the text. In my opinion this is a great technique as the reader feels involved in the story from the start, thus enticing them to continue into the main body of the text.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Greenhouse Business Challenge and Carbon Footprint - Assignment Example This research will begin with the statement that it has been observed that about 100 percent of the temperature has increased over the last 50 years. This is due to the increase in the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of the earth. The concentration of gases like carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, etc has created a harmful layer over the ozone. The greenhouse gases act as a mirror of the earth. It reflects the heat waves of the sun back to the earth. This process increases the temperature of the earth causing global warming. As we can see in the paper, carbon dioxide (CO2) generated through fossil fuel such as kerosene, gas, petrol or oil has increased dramatically over the past 50 years.Ã The concentration of the CO2 has also increased due to the same. The temperature of Earth has increased by 3 to 5 percent in the year 2010. The sea level has also increased by 25 meters, i.e. about 82 feet above in 2010. Carbon footprint is nothing but the sum total of all the g reenhouse gases. The main cause that contributes to the increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the household electricity, clothing, food, and transportation. All these factors are responsible for the release of huge amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, the good news is that there are ways to reduce emission and carbon footprints. The US government has not set any legal bindings or targets for the reduction of GHG emission in the past but President Barack Obama has introduced the policy of US to reduce the emission by 14 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. The US government is mainly focusing on the reduction of fuel emission by regularly reviewing the number of vehicle and the emission of GHG gases.